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Binocular vision is achieved by five neurovisual systems originating in the retina but varying their destination within brain. Two have been widely studied: retino-tectal or retino-collicular route, which subserves an expedient and raw estimate of visual scene through magnocellular pathway, retino-occipital retino-cortical allows slower refined analysis parvocellular pathway. But there also exist further systems: retino-hypothalamic, retino-pretectal, accessory optic systems, play a crucial role though they are less understood. The retino-pretectal pathway projecting onto pretectum critical for pupillary photomotor reflex. retino-hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates numerous behavioral biological functions as well circadian rhythms. system targeting terminal lateral, medial dorsal nuclei paraoptic fasciculus plays head gaze orientation slow movements. Taken together, these involve 60{87b8eb106975fd1695ae4485e9298a996ab53ed6cc3cdafc99d6898e16c0c99e} brain activity, thus highlighting importance functioning regulation central nervous system. first foremost action, makes perception impossible without movement. coordination prerequisite binocular fusion object interest on two foveas, ensuring perception. sufficient to elicit reflexive eye movements with short latencies. Thanks its motor neurons, superior colliculus activates premotor themselves activate neurons oculomotor, trochlear abducens nuclei. At higher level, cascade neural mechanisms participates control decisional controlled substancia nigra pars reticulata, itself gated subcortical structures such striatum. inhibited dorsolateral prefrontal cortex direct prefrontotectal tract. Cortical areas triggering movements: frontal field, supplementary parietal field. Finally cerebellum maintains accuracy. focus present research topic, entitled Neural bases implications training programs, review most recent findings imaging neurophysiology humans animals frontally-placed eyes. emphasis put studies that enable transfer knowledge toward programs field defects (e.g., hemianopia) functional disorders amblyopia).

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The NAB Engineering Handbook provides detailed information on virtually every aspect of the broadcast chain, from news gathering, program production and postproduction through master control distribution links to transmission, antennas, RF propagation, cable satellite. Hot topics covered include HD Radio, HDTV, 2 GHz auxiliary services, EAS, workflow, metadata, digital asset management, advanced video audio compression, over IP, Internet broadcasting. A wide range related that engineers managers need understand are also covered, including administration, FCC practices, technical standards, security, safety, disaster planning, facility project engineering management. Basic principles latest technologies issues all addressed by respected professionals with first-hand experience in industry manufacturing. This edition has been fully revised updated, 104 chapters 2000 pages. single most comprehensive accessible resource available for others working production, postproduction, networks, local stations, equipment manufacturing or any associated areas radio television. * An National Association Broadcasters official publication Over 100 leaders combine their knowledge expertise into one reference Completely add many new such as Video more